ASTRAKHAN


ASTRAKHAN
ASTRAKHAN, Volga port, capital of Astrakhan district, Russia. The "Jewish Statute" of 1804 (see russia ) included the province (gubernia) of Astrakhan in the pale of settlement . However, in 1825 Jewish settlement in this government was prohibited. The "Jewish Statute" of 1835 excluded the province of Astrakhan from the Pale and the 49 Jews were ordered to leave. Shortly afterward a community was again established by Jewish soldiers stationed in the town. In 1850 Jewish merchants from the Caucasus obtained permission to visit Astrakhan twice yearly for a total of not longer than six months in the year. In the second half of the 19th century, Jews in categories with the right of domicile outside the Pale moved there. An Ashkenazi synagogue was established in 1866, and in 1879 the Oriental Jews, who used to visit Astrakhan on business, also founded a synagogue. In 1897 there were 2,164 Jews living in Astrakhan; in 1926, 5,904 (3.4% of the total population); and in 1939, 4,077 (1.61%). In 1970 there were 3,462 Jews in Astrakhan with a synagogue and a cemetery. The synagogue was attacked in 1964 and there were reports of Jews having been murdered. Hooligans were arrested but were not brought to trial. Jewish community life revived in the 1990s. The restored synagogue was reopened in 2003, and Shlomo Zalman Goldenberg became the first rabbi to serve the city in 70 years. The number of Jews was estimated at 3,000 in 2002. (Eliyahu Feldman)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • ASTRAKHAN — ASTRAKHA S’étendant sur les deux rives du bras principal de la Volga, à une centaine de kilomètres de la mer Caspienne, Astrakhan, chef lieu de la région administrative de la Fédération de Russie du même nom, comptait déjà 113 000 habitants en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Astrakhan — As tra*khan , a. Of or pertaining to Astrakhan in Russia or its products; made of an Astrakhan skin. n. The skin of stillborn or young lambs of that region, the curled wool of which resembles fur. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • astrakhan — cloth or astrakhan wool of the type originally clipped from sheep native to Astrakhan on the Caspian in the delta of the Volga …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games

  • astrakhan — ► NOUN ▪ the dark curly fleece of young karakul lambs from central Asia. ORIGIN named after the city of Astrakhan in Russia …   English terms dictionary

  • astrakhan — [as′trə kən] n. 1. a loosely curled fur, a kind of karakul, made from the pelt of very young lambs originally bred near Astrakhan 2. a wool fabric with a pile cut and curled to look like this …   English World dictionary

  • Astrakhan — Astrakhan, so v.w. Astrachan …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Astrakhan — [as′trə kan΄; ] Russ [ äs΄trə khän′y ] city & port in SW Russia, on the Volga River delta near the Caspian Sea: pop. 512,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Astrakhan — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Astrakan. Astrakhan Астрахань …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Astrakhan — Infobox Russian city EnglishName=Astrakhan RussianName=Астрахань Skyline=Astrakhan panoramaofcenter.jpg Skyline LatDeg=46 LatMin=21 LatSec LonDeg=48 LonMin=03 LonSec Locator LocatorMap CityDay= FederalSubject=Astrakhan Oblast MunStatus=Urban… …   Wikipedia

  • astrakhan — /as treuh keuhn, kan /, n. 1. a fur of young lambs, with lustrous, closely curled wool, from Astrakhan. 2. Also called astrakhan cloth. a fabric with curled pile resembling astrakhan fur. Also, astrachan. [1760 70] * * * City (pop., 2001 est.:… …   Universalium